Hypothetical Sphenisciformes ancestral karyotype representing the conserved morphology of the macrochromosomes and ZW chromosomes. The frequencies of the morphologies (Metacentric= M; Submetacentric= S; Acrocentric= A; Telocentric= T) in the current species are represented above each pair.

 
 
  Part of: Gunski RJ, CaƱedo AD, Garnero ADV, Ledesma MA, Coria N, Montalti D, Degrandi TM (2017) Multiple sex chromosome system in penguins (Pygoscelis, Spheniscidae). Comparative Cytogenetics 11(3): 541-552. https://doi.org/10.3897/CompCytogen.v11i3.13795  

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